Tejas Express With on Board Wi-Fi, Infotainment System Set to Flag Off

Tejas Express With on Board Wi-Fi, Infotainment System Set to Flag Off
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Tejas Express With on Board Wi-Fi, Infotainment System Set to Flag Off

 

Texas Express, slated to begin Monday afternoon, will come with many modern technologies on board, such as Wi-Fi, information and entertainment system, LED TV, CCTV, etc. At a top speed of 200 km / h, the new Tejas Express is faster than Shatabdi Express, it has fire and graffiti detection facilities, smoke detection. The doors of the 13 coaches, including executive coach, are centralized.

“Tomorrow will be a historic day for Indian Railways when Texas Express, which has modern equipment such as information and entertainment detectors on board, wireless, CCTV, fire and smoke, tea distributor / coffee, etc. Its first race Of Mumbai, “said DK Sharma, general manager of the central train. Sharma, who inspected the train at Chhatrapati Shivaji Terminus, Bombay (CSTM) compared to Texas Express “airplane that moves on the ground.”

“I would say traveling through this premium now offer a better experience of flying in a plane. This train would pass through the lush vegetation of the Konkan ribbon, giving a panoramic view of the sea, mountains and valleys, which You will enjoy the trip and not just the destination (Goa), “he said.

When asked about reports that there were some badly damaged Texas Express windows, even before its release, the official said, “We have taken note of this and that is not a problem now.”

Texas route and schedule express
Giving details of the route and schedule of trains, Sharma said he would run between Mumbai and Karmali (Goa) five days a week during the non-monsoon period and three days a week during the monsoon s’ stopping at Dadar, Thane, Panvel, Ratnagiri and Kudal stations.

“Train No. 22119 Texas Superfast Express will leave at 5 am CST Tuesday, Wednesday, Friday, Saturday and Sunday May 24 and arrive in Karmali at 1:30 pm on the same day.

Train No. 22120 Texas Express Superfast will leave Karmali at 14:30 on Tuesday, Wednesday, Friday, Saturday and Sunday, May 23 and will arrive at the CCT at 9:00 pm, “he said.
This train will have an AC steering chair with a capacity of 56 seats and 12 chairs AC seats with a capacity for 78 people in each car, Sharma said.

Reservations for Texas express tickets
CR Chief Commercial Officer Shailendra Kumar welcomed the “positive response” by passengers when booking early train tickets.

Kumar, who accompanied Sharma during the train inspection, added: “Ticket bookings started a few minutes to open this morning in the first four hours, 207 passengers have booked tickets for the remote control and a car seat 10 The executive. ”

Comparing the details of the tariffs, Kumar said that the rate in business class Texas Express has been set at Rs. 2680 with food and Rs. 2525 without food, and for chair AC chairs, the price was set at Rs 1280 with food and Rs. 1155 without food.

Kumar also reported that railroads had planned optional catering services on board.

“If a passenger does not allow food services at the time of booking the ticket and decided to purchase meals on board, an additional amount of Rs.50 per service, in addition to the prescribed restoration fee will be charged under virtue subject To availability, “he added.

RBI outlines broad plans on $150 billion bank bad loan resolution

RBI outlines broad plans on $150 billion bank bad loan resolution
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RBI outlines broad plans on $150 billion bank bad loan resolution

Mumbai: The Reserve Bank of India (RBI) on Monday outlined the outline of a plan to solve the problem of $ 150 billion of bad debt that plagues banks.

The move comes two weeks after the Indian government changed the rules, giving the central bank more power to deal with deteriorating loans.

Among plans announced Monday night, the RBI said it revised and revised the current guidelines for the restructuring of stressed loans. He is also working on a framework to help “facilitate objective and coherent decision making” for cases that may be subject to insolvency courts.

In order to prevent borrowers from seeking credit ratings, the RBI said that it “explored the possibility that the assessment scores are determined by the Reserve Bank itself and paid for by a fund created from the banks And the Reserve Bank “.

The RBI did not explain how the new system would work, but some have tentatively welcomed the move as a positive step.

“So far we have ignored a company if its rating was made by a rating agency considers less. But now, the RBI’s criteria in the assignment of ratings should help us to better clarify how we evaluate the odds,” said a major treasury Of a private sector bank.

The slowdown in economic growth and, in some cases, impaired lending practices were attributed to deteriorated loans higher, more than 20 majority-owned government banks that have the most poor resources.

The resolution of the problem loans problem is the centerpiece of the economic policy of the government of Prime Minister Narendra Modi and has issued an executive mandate earlier this month to change the rules of the country’s banking regulatory law.

In the expected increase in bankruptcy under the Bankruptcy and Insolvency Code, the RBI said it had already requested information from banks on the current state of their large stressed assets. The regulator said he plans to form a separate panel, which consists mainly of independent members, to advise on this.

The central bank said in the near future will also meet with stakeholders, including banks, asset reconstruction companies, rating agencies, and private equity firms, among others, for their cooperation and coordination.

In addition, the RBI said it would expand a follow-up committee to guide banks in restructuring the deteriorating loans.

In addition to the new members, the scope of the panel will be expanded to go beyond the limited mandate of the cases currently handled, the regulator said.

Tata Sons hires Saurabh Agrawal as group CFO

Tata Sons hires Saurabh Agrawal as group CFO
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Tata Sons hires Saurabh Agrawal as group CFO

Tata Group President N Chandrasekaran said on Monday a key recruitment holding company Tata Sons veteran banker Saurabh Agrawal as CFO.

Agrawal, who will be joining in July, is currently the director of strategy with Aditya Birla Group. As CFO Group to Tata Sons, which will focus on the recovery of certain companies with losses on the track. Agrawal played a key role in managing the merger operation Idea-Vodafone, and merger-Grasim Aditya Birla Nuvo for the Birla entity. This will be the second major appointment of Chandrasekaran, following that of Ankur Verma, former managing director of investment banking for Bank of America Merrill Lynch, who joined the Tata Group in March.

Prior to Birla’s work, Agrawal led Standard Chartered Bank corporate finance in India and South Asia. He also served as director of investment banking for DSP Merrill Lynch, where he worked with Chandrasekaran on Tata’s Initial Public Offering in 2004, along with other acquisitions.
“Agrawal brings extensive knowledge of the capital markets and experience in different sectors of this critical leadership role in the Tata Group.His experience will help us to manage rigor and synergy in capital allocation decisions, investment management , As well as the consolidation and optimization of the group’s business portfolio, “said Chandrasekaran.

“I am honored to be part of the Tata Group. This is an exciting time for the group under the leadership of Chandrasekaran,” said Agrawal, IIT Roorkee graduate, graduated from IIM Calcutta.

One of the complaints was that Tata Group patriarch Ratan Tata against former Tata Sons chairman Cyrus Mistry was that he had not appointed the group’s chief financial officer after the release of Ishaat Hussain as Tata Sons CFO in 2012.

The financial director of the group is important and is considered a second link between Tata Sons and its subsidiaries, after the president. Hussain, for example, joined the Tata Sons board as chief executive in July 1999 and also was director of several companies, including Tata Tata Industries, Tata Steel and Voltas. He was also the President of Voltas and Tata Sky.

Group initiates said Agrawal quit because at least three entities – Tata Teleservices, the Mundra project to Tata Power and operations in the UK – Tata Steel need immediate attention.

In addition to making entities that are not profitable and allocate capital through the companies, Chandra and the group’s chief financial officer will also ensure that Tata Sons gives enough dividends to Tata Trust, which holds a 66% stake in ‘ business. One of the reasons given by Tata for the removal of Mistry was that he was not able to do so.

Live: Sensex Falls Nearly 200 Points, Sun Pharma Shares Slump 8%

Live: Sensex Falls Nearly 200 Points, Sun Pharma Shares Slump 8%
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Live: Sensex Falls Nearly 200 Points, Sun Pharma Shares Slump 8%

The Sensex fell nearly 200 points and then moved Nifty 9400 due to weak pharmaceutical capital, consumer goods, banking, real estate and energy. Pharmaceutical stocks were among the most affected by trade so far with top-tier pharma stocks like Sun Pharma, Cipla and Aurobindo Pharma, ranging from 3 to 5 percent each. Analysts say the Nifty is likely to trade in the range of 9400 to 9500 and on the rise and any leaks on either side of the ridge will determine the trend of the future index.

12:34: The width of the market is still very bearish, while 2122 stocks fall, while stocks of 409 advance on the BSE.
12:05: shares of gas company owned GAIL India, have fallen more than 6 percent to Rs 365.50 on Tuesday after reporting after Monday market hours, 69% of its profit. For the quarter from January to March due to the value of its investment in the Dabhol power plant. Gail India reported a gain of Rs. Rs 260 million for 4Q against Rs. 832 crore profit for the same period the previous year. Analysts surveyed by NDTV Profit had estimated that the net profit of Rs. 1,113 crore.

11:30: Real estate stocks reflect the selling pressure. The BSE index of real estate fell by 2.32 percent; HDIL was the top loser of this space, up to 5.47% Rs. 84.75. DLF, Unitech, Oberoi Realty, Indiabulls Real Estate, Phoenix Ltd and Sobha Ltd. were also among the losers, behind 1 to 3.65% each.

11:11: Videocon Industries was the top loser of small space cap 20 percent at Rs 64.80. Tanla Solutions Dhunseri Petrochem Limited, Indo Count Industries, Den Networks, Mirza International and Sharda Cropchem were also among the losers, front To 7.8 to 15% each.

10:50 Shares of Sun Pharma extend losses, fell 7 percent to reach a 52 week low of Rs 589 ..

10h30: the width of the market was extremely bearish, since 1969 shares declined, while only 269 advanced to the Bombay Stock Exchange.

10:16 am Sun Pharma shares fall 6 percent to reach a new 52-week high Rs. 601 after its US-based subsidiary, Taro Pharma has reported lower than expected earnings.

10:06: Sales pressure visible through the table excludes some IT stocks.

9:59 am: Adani companies was the top loser of the average space, 7% to Rs 112.60 .. Reliance Communications, Bank of India, Indian Bank, Adani Power, Havells India, GMR Infra, minimum required limit, Infra and Jindal Steel were also among the losers, down from 4.6 to 7% each.

09:45: GAIL India was one of the best Nifty losers, a 5.2 percent to Rs 369.85 after the company unveiled the market hours reported on Monday a 69% fall in net income in the fourth. Quarter after realizing the value of its investment in the Dabhol power plant.

Net income for the January-March quarter of the last fiscal year was Rs. Rs 260.16 million or Rs. 1.54 per share, compared to Rs. Rs 832.13 million or Rs. 4.92 per share, net profit for the same period last year.

9:41: The shares of the PSU banks extended their movement yesterday. The sub-index of the PSU PSSE NSE-Nifty bank index fell 1.73 percent; Bank of India was the best loser in this space 5% to Rs. 150. Oriental Bank of Commerce, Bank of Allahabad, Union Bank, Punjab National Bank, Andhra Bank, Baroda Bank and IDBI bank were among the laggards.

9:31 am: Broad markets posted a lower performance analysis. The indices of the mid-body and the small BSE lid fell by more than 1.5% each.

09:24: In the Nifty stock basket, 37 was reduced, while the advanced 14. Sun Pharma was the loser at the top Nifty, 5% at Rs. 607. GAIL India, Aurobindo Pharma, Cipla, Baroda Bank, Indiabulls Housing Finance, State Bank of India, Harbors Adani, Tata Power and Ambuja Cements were also among the losers, down 1.6 to 4.7 percent each.

09:20: Stock markets decline after a positive start. Sensex drops 56 points at 30515 and Nifty slides 24 9415.

Xiaomi Redmi 4 review: Redmi 3S Prime HD remaster

Xiaomi Redmi 4 review: Redmi 3S Prime HD remaster
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Xiaomi Redmi 4 review: Redmi 3S Prime HD remaster

The new redmi 4 Xiaomi borrows greatly from last year’s redmi 3S (Prime) in almost all major departments, however, when first seen and carried out in the car, is a whole new ball game . This is refining the jagged edges of the original classic, a trait that only the best in the company could deepen.

Xiaomi already had a fantastic phone on redmi 3S (Prime), after all. Not surprisingly, it has sold more than 40 lakh phone units in India in just 9 months. There was so much he could add to his successor as to justify an update. Look.

Design and quality of construction
Redmi 4 closely resembles redmi. Note 4. Only smaller. Okay, the redmi 4 is for someone who prefers a smaller phone. An accuracy of 5 inches. Because it takes a lot to the aesthetic of the Redmi Design Note 4, the 4 Redmi invariably shares both its inevitable and disadvantages.
It is a spectator, the redmi 4. There is absolutely no way in this. As a Redmi 4 note, the Redmi 4 also comes with a matt black (and gold) that gives it a sleek look and feel challenging for its most affordable price. It looks like an expensive phone, which is not cheap.

The first redmi 3S comes with a full metal body: a first for any smartphone in and around its product category. With redmi 4 Xiaomi added a 2.5D curved glass with rounded edges and polished antenna lines, into the mix. Xiaomi has stuck with the correct formula “if it is not broken, do not fix it” here. Which is good because there was not much to complain about the Redmi 3S Primer design anyway. At the same time, additions such as acoustic fan 2.5D curved glass and the bottom of the trigger upper fan that redmi 4 did not end up being a 3S redmi recycled Prime. Like the first redmi 3S, the crack redmi 4 on a large 4100 mAh battery inside, and like the first redmi 3S, the redmi 4 also practically feel the same, no matter how it holds it. An all-metal construction, however, comes at a price. Things are bound to be a bit slippery at times. But in the case of redmi 3S, a strip of chrome in the front (and chaflanes) contributed a lot to balance the equation and improve the take, the redmi 4 – because it is much simpler compared – it is not the all metal smartphone More ergonomic (the prize) as his predecessor was back in the day. The Redmi 3S Prime is still almost the King in the North in this sense.

The redmi 4 is refining the jagged edges of redmi 3S, a feature that only the best in the company could deepen

Going up the redmi 4 – just like the redmi 3S – has always opened fingerprint scanner (it works fine most of the time, unless you have fat or sweat fingers) and physical capacitive keys in before ( Always) is not backlit. The power button and the rocker are straight, while the two-SIM card slot is on the left. Overall, the Redmi 4 is a well-designed smartphone that shouts prime from every corner and corner, just like its predecessor. In any case, it is even better than the first redmi 3S.

to exhibit
The redmi 4, like redmi 3S Prime, comes with a 5 “IPS 720p LCD. Brightness levels are more or less adequate and adaptive brightness functions as it should. The colors are rich and vibrant – a bit hot by default – but there is a manual correction mode on the inside that achieves better results, albeit slightly. There is also a built-in playback mode that changes color to a warmer finish of the spectrum for night reading.

Paytm Payments Bank Launched: Here’s What It Means for You

Paytm Payments Bank Launched: Here's What It Means for You
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Paytm Payments Bank Launched: Here’s What It Means for You

 

Tuesday Paytm announced the launch of its payment bank in India with a public notice in newspapers and a blog. This comes after months of delays, but according to the notice, the company’s Paytm portfolio is transferred to the newly formed entity, Paytm Payments Bank Ltd (PPBL). Paytm was ready to begin operations throughout the past year Independence Day.

In 2015, the RBI has granted approval, in principle, the founder Vijay Shekhar Sharma to set up a payment bank with 10 other people. So far, apart from Paytm only Airtel got its bank payment execution.

All Paytm portfolio accounts will be automatically transferred to new bank payments. If you do not want to continue with the bank, you need to unsubscribe by sending an email to or visiting help@paytm.com paytm.com/care to withdraw and change your balance by transferring your bank account.
Your account will remain a PPBL account portfolio, not a bank account. Inactive accounts for six months and that have a balance of zero will be transferred to PPBL there are no options. In addition to the wallet account, you can also open a Paytm bank payment or checking account. Although both have the same connection, it is necessary to open a separate bank account.
Paytm accounts are being deployed in beta for employees and associates. Other people may also request an invitation to become account holders at the bank. These accounts have a limit of Rs. 1 lakh per customer, and they are different portfolios as they can offer debit and interest cards.
For a Paytm bank account, you must visit the Paytm Bank page and click Request an Invitation. To do this you will need to log in to your Paytm account, and once you do, you automatically register your interest in being an account holder.
If the transfer of more than Rs. 25,000 in your Paytm bank account, you will receive a refund of Rs. 250 (1%), up to four times.
There is no minimum balance in the bank account. In addition, online transactions (such as IMPS, NEFT, RTGS) will have no charge.
One big difference between a portfolio and a paying bank is that it can offer an interest. Paytm pay 4% per year. This is below the 7.5% interest payment offered by the Airtel bank, and in line with what is obtained from the Axis, ICICI and HDFC.
On the other hand, unlike the portfolios, payment banks can offer debit cards (but not credit). According to the Paytm website, physical services such as a check book, debit cards and projects will be available from Paytm bank payments at a low price. Interestingly, Airtel offers no physical debit card, virtual, but to use online.
The bank will issue a Paytm Rupay debit card, which will be free but will be charged Rs 100 + shipping costs at annual rates. A lost card replacement will also be Rs. 100 + delivery. A checkbook of 10 sheets also cost Rs. 100 + shipping costs.
Paytm does not have its own ATMs. However, the debit card can be used free of charge five times in a non-meter or three times in the meter subway stop. Then there will be an Rs. 20 Cost of withdrawing cash, while other operations, such as check balances, will cost Rs. 5.

Adani Enterprises defers investment decision on Australian coal project

Adani Enterprises defers investment decision on Australian coal project
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Adani Enterprises defers investment decision on Australian coal project

Adani Indian companies Monday postponed the final investment decision on their long-running Carmichael Australia coal project while the Queensland government had not yet signed a royalty agreement for the mine.

The company plans to take a final investment decision (FID) at the proposed coal mine and lane 25 million tonnes per year by the end of May.
“Adani is informed that the Queensland Council of Ministers has not considered submission or royalties decisions by the Adani project today’s decision,” said company spokesman in Australia, Ron Watson.

“In light of this, Adani today postponed the Board’s decision on the IDF until the government makes a decision.”

The Queensland government is considering ways to extend royalty payments to promote employment and investment in a state characterized by declining output over the last five years.

However, the Labor government faces opposition within its own ranks, having vowed that no taxpayer money is used to subsidize the controversial Carmichael project in the Galilee Basin without exploding.

Queensland’s Prime Minister Anastasia Palazsczuk said on Monday the issue had not been discussed by the Cabinet but said any change in the state’s royalty regime would not only be for Adani but would be a series of new developments Miners and gas.

“I think that as a government, we can see clearly to try to open the Galilee (and other areas),” he told reporters.

“At the end of the day, it’s about work, and that’s what people want from Queensland.”

Adani fought green groups over the past six years, seeking to block what would become Australia’s largest coal mine. Opponents argued that coal exports could fuel global warming and that the project would require port expansion that could damage the Great Barrier Reef.

The expansion of the port is no longer necessary as the company reduced the first phase of the mine to 25 million tonnes from 40 million tonnes per year as it aims to improve affordability and my rail project around 4 billion Of dollars, instead of more than 10 billion.

Seven Reliable Sources to Learn About beauty services at home

Seven Reliable Sources to Learn About beauty services at home
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The beauty services at the home are the best way to get the best beauty treatment for better care of your skin. It provides the best opportunity of the beauty services at home, which is the comfortable thing for you and also placed for you at your convenient place ever.

There are the seven reliable sources to learn about beauty services at home, which is the best way to get the best beauty services of glow up India.

  • The experienced person gives the best and useful tips of the beauty services at home is that they afford the best beauty services at home and it will be more beneficial for you.
  • Always experienced person gives the tips to another person, those have not the time to go to the salon and they are busy, so they must choose the beauty services at home for the betterment of them.
  • The experienced person must give the useful tips to other that they can also save the money by choosing the beauty services at home.
  • You can get the best beauty treatment at your home without going anywhere, because if you will go for salon outside, then it can also prove for you very expensive
  • You can save your valuable time by choosing the beauty services at home in Mumbai and you can get your time for your family
  • You can get the best beauty along with the great rest by choosing the beauty services at home because some housewives not getting to care of herself
  • You can better select that all cosmetics, which suits to you and perfect for you, then you can say to the beautician for change this cosmetic and they will do it for better care of your skin.

 

Empowering Children: National Plan of Action for Children, 2016

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Empowering literally means to ‘put in’ or ‘to cause’ power as derived from its Latin roots. The act of empowering children is a process of guiding them to feel and believe that they are powerful now as well as creating optimum conditions that mirror back to them these concepts. Government has initiated various projectsand programmes to empower the children. Present paper aims to discuss the National Plan of Action for Children, 2016.

History at a Glance

India has passed various child­centric legislations such as the Juvenile Justice Care and Protection Act (2000) and the new Act of 2015 keeping in line with standards of care and protection required in present time, establishment of the National Commission for the Protection of Child Rights (NCPCR) (2005), the Prohibition of Child Marriage Act (2006), the Right of Children to Free and Compulsory Education Act (2009), and the Protection of Children from Sexual Offences (POCSO) Act (2012). The Government is imple­menting large number of schemes and programmes for children. Notable among them are Integrated Child Development Scheme (ICDS, 1975), Swachh Bharat Mission (Total Sanitation Campaign, 1999 and Swachh Bharat Mission, 2014), Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan (SSA, 2000), National Health Mission (NHM, 2005), Integrated Child Protection Scheme (ICPS, 2009), National Skill Development Mission (NSDM, 2015) and many others. The National Nutrition Mission (NNM) is soon to be re-launched to address key issues of under-nutrition in a compre­hensive way. The Government is also undertaking gender and child bud­geting to ensure adequate resource allocation for women and children. While some “Initiatives of the Government, like Mahatma Gandhi

National Employment Guarantee Act do not directly relate to children, they significantly affect children’s condition. The benefits of MNREGA are extended to them by developing better infrastructure at community level through convergence, and empowering vulnerable households by providing them employment in their own village. In recent years, the most important policy initiative taken by Government of India has been adoption of the National Policy for Children 2013 which reaffirms com­mitment to inclusive development and protection of all children and declares them to be a ‘unique and supremely important national asset’.

Policy Framework for Child­ren

  1. National Policy for Children, 1974
  2. Promotion and adoption of International Year of the Child (IYC), 1979
  3. National Policy for Education, 1986
  4. Adoption of 1990s’ World Child Survival and Development Goals, 1990
  5. Accession to UNCRC, 1992
  6. National Nutrition Policy 1993
  7. National Health Policy, 2002
  8. National Charter for Children, 2003
  9. National Plan of Action for Children, 2005
  10. Adoption of Guidelines for NCPCR, 2011 and 2015
  11. National Policy for Children 2013
  12. National Early Childhood Care and Education (ECCE) Policy 2013
  13. India New Born Action Plan 2014

The National Policy for Children, 2013

The National Policy for Children 2013 was adopted by the Government

on April 26, 2013. It adheres to the constitutional mandate and guiding principles of UN CRC and reflects a paradigm shift from a ‘need-based’ to a ‘rights-based’ approach. It emphasises that the State is com­mitted to take affirmative measures to promote equal opportunities for all children and to enable all children in its jurisdiction to exercise all the constitutional rights. The National Policy for Children 2013 recognizes that:

  1. A child is any person below the age of eighteen years;
  2. Childhood is an integral part of life with a value of its own;
  3. Children are not a homogenous group and their different needs need different responses, espe­cially the multi-dimensional vulnerabilities experienced by children in different circum­stances;
  4. A long term, sustainable, multi­sectoral, integrated and inclusive approach is necessary for the overall and harmonious deve­lopment and protection of children.

This Policy is meant to guide and inform all laws, policies, plans and programmes affecting children. As children’s needs are multi-sectora! and interconnected, and require collective action, the Policy aims for purposeful convergence and strong coordination across different sectors and levels of governance; active engagement and partnerships with al! stakeholders; setting up of a compre­hensive and reliable knowledge base: provision of adequate resources; and sensitization and capacity develop­ment of all those who work for anc with children.

Some other issues are :

  1. The best interest of the child is a primary concern in all decisions and actions affecting the child

Integral to the well-being of all children is the assurance of their safety and security.

  1. Recognition of every child’s worth,. and provision for this critical protection thus stand at the heart of the Government’s present resolve to formulate and carry out a new plan to benefit all children in the country.
  2. In setting the course of national action for the good of children, India expresses its awareness that childhood safety and security are essential com­ponents of change and progress across and above all sectors of development.
  3. The National Policy renews and reaffirms India’s commitment to all the children it is pledged to care for.

The National Plan of Action for Children, 2016

The National Plan of Action for Children 2016 succeeds the Plan of Action adopted in 2005. The previous plan had identified 12 key areas keeping in mind priorities and the intensity of the challenges that require utmost and sustained attention :

  • Reducing Infant Mortality Rate.
  • Reducing Maternal Mortality Rate.
  • Reducing Malnutrition among children.
  • Achieving 100% civil registration of births.
  • Universalization of early child­hood care and development and quality education for all children achieving 100% access and reten­tion in schools, including ECCEs.
  • Complete abolition of female foeticide, female infanticide and child marriage and ensuring the survival, development and protection of the girl improving Water and sanitation coverage in both rural and urban areas.
  • Addressing and upholding the rights of Children in Difficult Circumstances.
  • Securing for all children all legal and social protection from all kinds of abuse, exploitation and neglect.
  • Complete abolition of child labour with the aim of progres­sively eliminating all forms of economic exploitation of children.
  • Monitoring, Review and Reform of policies, programmes and laws to ensure protection of children’s interests and rights.
  • Ensuring child participation and choice in matters and decisions affecting their lives.

Programmes and Schemes in the NPAC 2016

  1. Beti Bachao Beti Padhao.
  2. Dindayal Disabled Rehabilitation Scheme.
  3. Integrated Child Development Services (Including SABLA and Kishori Shakti Yojana).
  4. Indira Gandhi Matritva Sahayog Yojana.
  5. Integrated Child Protection Scheme.
  6. Integrated Rashtriya Madhyamik Shiksha Abhiyan.
  7. Janani SurakshaYojana.
  8. janani Shishu Suraksha Karyakram.
  9. Mid-Day Meal.
  10. Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Scheme.
  11. National Health Mission.
  12. National Nutrition Mission.
  13. National Rural/Urban Drinking Water Mission.
  14. National Mental Health Pro­gramme.
  15. National AIDS Control Pro­gramme.
  16. Pradhanmantri Kaushal Vikas Yojana.
  17. Rashtriya Bal Swasthya Karya­kram.
  18. Rajiv Gandhi National Creche Scheme.
  19. Rashtriya Kishor Swasthya Karyakram.
  20. Sarva Shiksha Mission.
  21. Swachh Bharat Mission.
  22. Scholarship Schemes.
  23. Schemes under National Trust Act.

The NPAC 2005 was framed for a period of five years. While no formal evaluation of the plan has been under­taken, many of the goals remain unfulfilled, like reducing IMR to 30 per 1000 live births and MMR to 100 per 100,000 live births; 100% coverage for rural sanitation, universalization of early childhood care and education services, elementary education and complete abolition of child labour and child marriage by 2010. The Government of India is committed to achieving these objectives; the new National Policy reaffirms this as a national mandate, and the new plan is set to carry it forward to practical realisation. The NPAC 2016 takes into account the current priorities for children in India. It is an initiative to further strengthen and activate the implementation and monitoring of national constitutional and policy commitments and the UN Conven­tion on the Rights of the Child. It provides a road-map that links the Policy.

Objectives of Actionable Pro­grammes and Strategies

In alignment with the NPAC 2013, it affirms the State’s responsibi­lity to provide for all children in its territory and jurisdiction before, during and after birth, and through­out the period of the growth and development, up to the age of 18 years. The plan takes due note of the importance of strengthening the ability of communities and families to support children and to ensure their overall survival, well-being, protection and development. The focus of the NPAC is to reach and serve the ‘Last Child First’. This is a commitment ta give first rank to the children who are most vulnerable due to gender, socio-cultural and economic or geographic exclusion, including other vulnerable children- street children, children of migrant workers, sex workers and those suffering from HIV/AIDS or other diseases. In this context, it aims at establishing an effective coordination among all stakeholders, including Ministries, departments and civil society organisations in the planning, implementation, monitoring and assessment of all policies and pro­grammes adopted for children. The NPAC states the initiatives to be taken by various sectors and services in a time-bound manner to achieve targets ensuring to all children their right to survival, dignity, health, nutrition, education, development, protection and participation. The Goals and Targets are in alignment with National Goals and targets envisaged for children. It also provides a framework for the States and Union Territories to develop their own state plans so as to protect children’s rights and promote their development.

Key Priority Areas of NPAC 2016

  1. Survival, Health and Nutrition.
  2. Education and Development (including Skill Development).
  3. The NPAC 2016 attempts to address key issues and concerns identified in each key priority area. The key issues have been identified based on analysis of existing data on child survival, health, nutrition and protection as well as through consultations held with children themselves.

Status of Children in India

  1. Maternal Mortality 167 per 100,000 live births (SRS 2011-13).
  2. Neonatal Mortality 28 per 1000 live births (SRS 2013).
  3. Infant Mortality 40 per 1000 live births (SRS 2013).
  4. U-5 Mortality 49 per 1000 live births (SRS 2013).
  5. 48% of neo-natal deaths due to prematurity and low birth weight (SRS 2010-13).
  6. 45-4% Mothers received 4 or more ANCs (RSOC 2013-14).
  7. 78-7% Institutional Delivery (RSOC 2013-14).
  8. 39-3% Neonates received PNC within 48 hours of delivery/ discharge (RSOC 2013-14).
  9. 38-7% of children 0-59 months stunted; % higher for SC/ST (RSOC 2013-14).
  10. 15-1% of children 0-59 months wasted; % higher for SC /ST (RSOC 2013-14).
  11. 29-4% of children 0-59 months underweight; % higher for SC/ST (RSOC 2013-14).
  12. 6% children 0-23 months breastfed immediately/within 1 hour of birth (RSOC 2013-14).
  13. 65-3% children 12-23 month fully immunized; % lower for SC/ST (RSOC 2013-12).
  14. 49-84% HHs practice open defecation (Census 2011).
  15. Net Enrolment Ratio at Elemen­tary Level: 88-45% (U-DISE 2014- 15).
  16. Net Enrolment Ratio at Secon­dary level: 48.46% (U-DISE 2014- 15).
  17. Drop-out rates at Elementary level 36-3% (Educational Statistics at a Glance, MOHRD; 2014).
  18. Drop-out rates for SC and ST at Elementary level 38-8% and 48.2% respectively (Educational Statistics at a Glance, MOHRD; 2014).
  19. 33 million children in the age group of 5-18 years engaged in the labour force (Census 2011).
  20. 30-3% women in the age 20-24 married before 18 years (RSOC 2013-14).
  21. Rise in rate of crimes against children as well as committed by children (NCRB 2014).
  22. Approximately 40 per cent of the reported offences against child­ren are sexual offences (NCRB 2014).

The NPAC is committed to focusing on the ‘last’ and least-served children, across the full span of childhood, to bring them into the radius of the plan provisions and safeguards. It will assure special attention, care and protection to all children of socially, economically or otherwise disadvantaged groups, such as SC/ST children, children with disabilities or other special needs, street children, child labour, trafficked children, children affected or displaced by natural hazards and climate conditions or by civil dis­turbance, orphans and children with­out family support, or in institutions, or children affected by HIV/AIDs, leprosy and other socially stigmatiz­ing conditions. The plan will give due attention to the inter-relatedness of deprivations and needs, and thus of measures to address each of them. The Ministry of Women and Child Development engaged with children to incorporate their voices in the NPAC 2016.

Issues in NPAC 2016

The following issues were raised

by children during various consul­tations held :

  1. Need information regarding different schemes and program­mes for children.
  2. Need information regarding their own health, growth and development and on specific issues like trafficking, violence, abuse.
  3. Need information regarding disasters, everyday hazards and risks and safety measures.
  4. Need to use various forms of interactive media to increase awareness.
  5. Safe and adequate spaces for play, sports and recreation for both boys and girls, adequate sports facilities in schools.
  6. Girls & boys should be taught self defence.
  7. Child-friendly and free transport system: special buses for children during school hours.
  8. Greater outreach of quality education, age-appropriate vocational training and medical services for all children.
  9. Tracing missing children should also be a priority, special camp? should be made for these groups
  10. Disability certificates should be easily available.
  11. More institutions required for •children with disabilities with adequately trained staff.
  12. Vocational and technical training and career counseling for adole­scents which will ensure thei: employability.
  13. Children in the age group of 15- 18 in all CCIs to be linked tc vocational courses so that they have a source of income ar.c good standard of living after 1′ years.
  14. Guardianship and family care for each child without a family.
  15. Parents and teachers need to be oriented to listen to children and take their views seriously.
  16. Spaces to voice their concern? regarding service delivery, and or behaviour of teachers or heal:: service providers.

 

  1. Awareness camps, street plays, short films on social evils and their disadvantages should be organised and shown in each and every village, especially with the parents.
  2. Need freedom of speech and expression
  3. Opportunity to participate in various development initiatives concerning them and chance to showcase their own leadership skills and qualities.

Beti Bachao Beti Padhao

When Prime Minister Narendra Modi decided to spearhead the campaign to improve the child sex ratio by launching the Beti Bachao Beti Padhao scheme in January this year, it seemed like the harbinger of better policies for women and children in the country. Just a month later, the government slashed its budget for the Ministry of Women and Child Development by more than half from the ? 21,193 crore available in 2015. Towards the end of the year, the Rajya Sabha passed the juvenile justice bill, bringing down the age at which juvenile offenders could be tried as adults from 18 to 16. While the Sexual Harassment of Women at Workplace (Prevention, Prohibition and Redressal) Act 2013 mandated all workplaces to set up internal com­plaint cells, no mechanism is in place to even collate data on this. The recent UNDP report on Gender Inequality Index shows India lagging behind war-torn Syria and Iraq and every South Asian neighbour barring Afghanistan.

The Census (2011) data showed a significant declining trend in the Child Sex Ratio (CSR), calculated as number of girls for every 1000 boys between age group of 0-6 years, with an all time low of 918 in 2011 from 976 in 1961. The decline in CSR has been unabated since 1961. This is an alarming indicator for women empowerment. It reflects both pre birth discrimination manifested through gender biased sex selection, and post birth discrimination against girls. The decline is widespread across the country and has expanded to rural as well as tribal areas. Alarmed by the sharp decline, the Government of India has irttroduced

Beti Bachao, Beti Padhao (BBBP) programme to address the issue of decline in CSR in 100 gender critical districts. Coordinated & convergent efforts are needed to ensure survival, protection and education of the girl child. The Overall Goal of the Beti Bachao, Beti Padhao (BBBP) Scheme is to Celebrate the Girl Child & Enable her Education. The objectives of the Scheme are as under :

  • Prevent gender biased sex selective elimination.
  • Ensure survival & protection of the girl child.
  • Ensure education of the girl child. The Beti Bachao Beti Padhao (BBBP) initiative has two major components : (i) Mass Com­munication Campaign and (ii) Multi-sectoral action in 100 selected districts (as a pilot) with adverse CSR, covering all States and UTs.

Looking Forward

Proposals are under way to increase maternity leave in govern­ment services from six months to eight months. For those in the private sector, the labour department has so far agreed to raise it to only six on the grounds that a longer maternity leave will adversely affect the employ- ability of women. Also, under way is a legally enforceable model pre­nuptial agreement that looks at ensuring maintenance for women in case they are abandoned by their spouses or terminate their marriage for any other reason. While, on one hand, the JJ Bill has introduced a provision for inter-country adoption, the Assisted Reproductive Techno­logy Bill is expected to disallow foreigners from hiring surrogate mothers, raising fears of commercial surrogacy being driven underground. Schemes for women may get a boost, including setting up of one-stop centres in states to address the issue of gender violence as well as a 24- hour women’s helpline in addition to proposals by the Home Ministry. The ministry has also decided to harness technology to provide for panic buttons in mobile phones. A report is expected soon from an inter-minis­terial panel studying ways to crack down on fraudsters who con women or run extortion rackets through

matrimonial websites. Over the next year, plans are also afoot to digitise the work of 13-46 lakh anganwadis working under the government’s flagship Integrated Child Develop­ment Scheme programme for fighting lack of nutrition among children, pregnant women and lactating mothers.                                             RDafpan

Continued from Page 87

  1. Non-Democratic : Caste is non-democratic because it does not favour equality between different castes, creed and colour. It creates obstacles in the way of lower caste fellows to come up in the society and develop their total faculties.
  2. Denies Social Progress : Caste system is based on Karma theory. People feel that their destiny is fixed and they cannot change their eco­nomic status. This leads to a state of inertia which kills their initiative and enterprise. It is an obstacle in the way of social and economic progress.

Conclusion

The advent of M. K. Gandhi in Indian politics brought the movement of uplifting lower castes to national scene. In 1917, the ‘All India Congress’ passed a resolution for removing the disabilities imposed on lower castes. In 1921, the ‘All India Congress’, again appealed to the Hindus for removal of untouchability and uplift of lower castes’. Thus, we find that several efforts were made for removal of untouchability and betterment of lower castes prior to Indian Inde­pendence. It brought some relief to these castes. After Independence, untouchability has been legally banned. Yet we find that the condi­tion of these castes has not improved very much. One primary cause of it has been that whatever advantages were provided to them were grabbed by a minority among them who were educated and economically well-off and they then formed a distinct class of themselves. Unless the economic lot of lower castes is improved, their members cannot expect to gain social or religious upliftment. Besides, enlightened education should be provided to them so that these classes understand their rights and make self-efforts for improving their lot.

P.Darpan

 

 

 

PD/June/2016/91

‘The laws of science do not distinguish between the past and the future. Steven.”

Caste Question Surfaces and History of Casteism in India —Dr. Ranjeet Kedarta

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Introduction

The word ‘caste’ is taken from the Spanish word, ‘Casta’. It means ‘breed, race and a host of hereditary qualities’. The English word ‘Caste’ is a variant from the original word. The Sanskrit word for caste is ‘Varna’ which means colour.

The caste system is a unique to Indian society. It seeks its origin in the ‘Chaturvarna System’, according to which Hindu society was divided into four main varnas namely, the Brahmans, the Kshatriyas, the Vaishyas and the Shudras. This Varna system was mainly based on the division of labour and occupation. The present caste system may desig­nate from the earlier Varna model. However, Varnas and Castes are not one and the same thing.

Origin of the Caste System

The origin of caste system is obscure. It is, however, believed that caste system originated in India. A host of theories have been put forward to explain the origin of caste system in India. Unfortunately none explains it properly. Risely explains the origin of caste in racial differ­ences; Nesfield and Ibbestson locate its origin in occupational sector; Abbe Dubois refers to the role played by the Brahmins and Huttons searches in the belief of ‘mana’ to find out the origin of caste system.

Changes in Caste System in India

The caste system in India grew and developed through millennia. The course of evolution and develop­ment of this unique institution can be studied by dividing history into four periods :

  1. Ancient Period
  2. Medieval Period
  3. Modern Period
  4. Post Independence Period.

 

  1. Ancient Period : The ancient period includes Vedic Period, Brah- manic Period, Maurya Periods, Post- Maury a Period and Harsha-Vardhana Period.

We observe two distinct streams of thought regarding caste system that prevailed during the Vedic period. Rig Vedic society recognized the three caste divisions of Brahmans, Kshatriyas and Vaishyas. The end of the Vedic period marks the outset of the later Vedic age known as the Brahmancal age. In this period, the hierarchy of four Varnas was for­mally established. The Brahmins and the Kshatriyas consolidated their positions in the society. The theory of four castes became clearly established and rigid. Brahmans described duties and codes of behaviour and social relationship of man. Division of labour became the basis of social specification.

During the Mauryan period the Vedic ritualism was completely ruled out. The caste system could not deve­lop as a rigid institution because social and political atmosphere was not favourable. Mauryan dynasty was ended by a Brahman Pushya- mitra Shunga. In this phase equality of law was completely destroyed and caste system developed on rigid lines and assumed a new structure.

The revival of Brahmins was further strengthened during the Gupta period. However, caste system was not so rigid in that period. The Shudras were permitted to become traders, artisans and agriculturists. But untouchability existed. The Harshavardhana period saw the similar caste structure. Brahmins dominated and the caste ruled the social structure.

  1. The Medieval Period : The

medieval period includes the Rajput period and the Muslim Period and it runs between 700-1750 A.D. The departure of the Harsha saw political
disintegration and rise of similar kingdoms under Rajput rulers with­out any external dangers for around five hundred years. The Indian social system did not change. Society became static and caste system became rigid. A large number of castes and sub-castes sprang up. Brahmins became more rigid. In due course, a large number of occupa­tional castes which originally started only as occupational guilds came to be regarded as distinct castes and sub-castes. Each of them had been driven by petty selfish motives. This had political and social represen­tations.

During the phase of the Islamic period consequent and consolidation on Indian soil caste system became still more rigid because Muslims were not absorbed in the elastic Hindu fold. Islam was monotheistic and could not compromise with Hindu polytheism. Hindu and Muslims could not mix together. In order to save people from the slaughter of Muslim crusade against Hinduism Brahmins made caste system even more rigid with their control over temples^which were then the centres of political, cultural, social, ritual and educational activities. Brahmins declared Muslims and all local asso­ciates of Muslims as ‘Mallechch’. Puranas were rewritten making caste system very rigid.

  1. The British Period : The British period includes the pre-industrial period and pre-independence indus­trial period. This period runs between 1757-1918 A.D. and 1919-1947 A.D. The administrative and socio-econo­mic policies of the British Govern­ment coupled with some legislative measures taken brought changes in the caste structure of the Indian society. The British transferred the judicial powers of the caste councils to the civil and the Criminal Courts. This affected and challenged the authority which panchayats held ever
    their members. Some legislative measures such as the caste Disability Removal Act (1850) also attacked the caste system. The British Government took some, social measures to remove disabilities of untouchables which further shook the integrity of the caste system.

During this period some social reforms also attacked the caste system. The Brahmo Samaj, the Arya Samaj, the Prarthana Samaj along with Ram Krishan Mission and Lingayat Movement in multiple ways attacked the rigidity of the caste system and helped the disintegrating forces to begin. In reality the British hardly did anything to modify India’s religious and social customs. They maintained a neutral position in this regard. However, the impact of industriali­sation was not uniform and absolute on all salient features of the caste system. For examples, it did not affect the customs pertaining to the marriage institution and belief in the caste norms. The authority of the Brahmins was also questioned. Inter­caste dining and intermingling weakened the rigidity of the caste system.

  1. Post Independence Period :

After the political independence the main factors which have affected the caste system, besides, industrialisa­tion and urbanisation are the merger of various states, enactment of laws, spread of education, rural-urban mig­ration, spatial mobility, the growth of market economy, socio-religious reforms westernisation and growth of modern profession. Prior to independence some states were strong bastions of the caste system. But in independent India the reorga­nisation of states and the framing of new Constitution for the whole coun­try on the basis of equality, justice and liberty to all persons irrespective of caste, colour, creed and abolishing the practising of untouchability led to the emergence of a new social order wherein caste system no longer functions on rigid lines. On the face of these modernising trends disinte­gration of caste is one of the main features of contemporary India. Below mentioned factors are responsible for these changes :

  1. Western Education;
  2. Importance of Wealth;.,-
  3. Industrialisation; i
  4. Transportation and Communica­tion;
  5. Social Reforms Movement;
  6. Origin of New Social Classes;
  7. Political Movements;
  8. Religious Movement.

Merits of Caste System

The very Survival of the caste system through ages despite the attack on it from various comers to cure the evils attached to it, exhibits the fact that the system has merits. The merits of caste system are as under:

  1. Social Security : Caste pro­vides every individual a fixed social environment. It acts as a permanent body of associations which controls almost all his behaviour and contacts. His caste determines his marital choices and acts as his trade union, his friendly society and his orphanage.
  2. Spirit of Cooperation : Caste develops the spirit of cooperation and ‘we-feeling’ among the members. It helps the poor and needy thereby reducing the rule of State in this regard. It minimises unhappiness.
  3. Economic Goals : Caste sets economic goals of the individual. Every caste is associated with an occupation and this ensures the future of the new members of the caste and develops a sense of pride for caste occupation as change of occupation is not thought of com­monly.
  4. Purity of Race : Caste has preserved the racial purity of higher castes through the practice of endo­gamy.
  5. Influences Mental Makeup :

Caste conditions the psycho of the individual. The caste dictates the customs pertaining to diet, marriage, rituals, occupation etc. to every individual and hence the caste customs and traditions influence his views pertaining to social and political matters.

  1. National Integration : Caste develops class consciousness without creating class struggle. It helped develop the social structure in such a way that within one society people of different cultures co-existed peace­fully thereby preventing the country from splitting up into fighting racial groups.
  2. Institutionalisation of Func­tions : Caste ensures various func­tions which are necessary for smooth functioning of social life ranging from scavenging to the government.
  3. Cultural Diffusion : Culture is transmitted from one generation to another. Thus, the caste custom, beliefs, skills, behaviour, the trade secrets are transmitted and carried on from one age to another.
  4. Separation of Social Life from Political Life : Caste has successfully maintained the independence of social life from the political life. A Hindu’s intimate life is independent of the political conditions. It has its own religious system and own caste gods.

Demerits of Caste System

The caste system is not without the following evils:

  1. Labour Mobility Denied ; Denied of labour mobility leads the stagnation as one has to follow the caste occupation.
  2. Untouchability : It develops untouchability whereby major section of the society is no better than slaves. It has created other social evils like child marriage, dowry system, veil system and casteism.
  3. Solidarity Retarded : The practice of social segregation between classes and rigid prohibition of social intercourse together retarded the growth of solidarity and brotherhood in the Hindu Society and finally weakened it.
  4. Talent Denied in Sections :

Under Caste system occupation is hereditary when son assumes the place of father in due course of time. But many a time it denies the choice, talent and skills of the individual in the matters of job selection. Some­times an uplift person assumes a position for which he has no requisite qualification of skills due to heredi­tary nature of occupation.

  1. Promotes Casteism : It has developed casteism. The caste followers exhibit blind faith in their castes and deny the healthy social standards of justice, equality and sense of brotherhood. Casteism creates social animosity and into­lerance of others’ existence. Casteism has become a tool in the hand of politicians who spread hatred and play caste politics.